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Sunday, 19 May 2013

FROM BRASS MONEY AND WOODEN SHOES TO AUGUSTAN CAPITAL


During the 18th century Britain became a world power. Possessing a powerful navy, it conquered territory from its rivals France, Spain, Portugal and Holland, extended its control in the Indian subcontinent, developed colonies in North America and began its settlement of Australia.

Strict laws prevented Ireland trading directly with the colonies but English vessels brought into Irish ports: tea from the Far East; sugar from the West Indies; tobacco from Virginia; fine muslin from India; and other exotic luxuries. To pay for these overseas goods and also for English coal, Ireland exported linen, corn, butter, salt pork and other farm produce. No city in Ireland benefited more from the expansion of the British Empire than Dublin. Captain William Bligh – the same captain of Mutiny on the Bounty fame – supervised the impressive deepening of the Liffey estuary to allow vessels to come up at all tides to the new stone-lined quays. The population, which had been 58,000 in 1683, was close to 129,000 by 1772 and 182,000, making Dublin the second city in the British Empire. It was in Dublin city that the viceroy held court at Dublin Castle. In the 1750s the handsome Bedford Tower was erected there and the Castle was extended to be given an elegant square built of red brick and cream stone. Edward Lovett Pearce, designed a magnificent new Parliament House in College Green with a line of stone columns in the new classical style. Across the island, expanding trade, a rising population and – above all – the long period of peace increased the income of the Kingdom.
Much of this wealth was spent in the development of Dublin. As well as erecting great mansions on their estates, this new ascendancy built magnificent town houses in Dublin. The first to be put up in the new Georgian style was Tyrone House, built for Sir Marcus Beresford, the Earl of Tyrone, in 1740. Then followed many others, including: Powerscourt House in South William Street put up for Richard Wingfield, Viscount Powerscourt; Leinster House in Kildare Street (completed for James FitzGerald, the 1st Duke of Leinster in 1745) and now the home of Dáil Éireann; Northland House, built for the Knox family of Dungannon in 1770 and now the Royal Irish Academy; and Charlemont House designed by and built for James Caulfield, the 1st Earl of Charlemont of Co Armagh, and later the Municipal Gallery of Modern Art.
Other Protestant gentlemen became urban developers. The included: Luke Gardiner, 1st Viscount Mountjoy, who built Gardiner Street and Mountjoy Square; the 6th Lord Fitzwilliam of Meryon who developed Merrion Square and Fitzwilliam Street (still the longest Georgian Street in the world); and Dr Bartholomew Mosse who developed Rutland Square, now Parnell Square. Dr Mosse, on the same site, built the Rotunda Lying-in Hospital – the first maternity hospital in either Britain or Ireland. The Assembly Rooms, attached to the Rotunda, rapidly became Dublin’s social hub where concerts and other events were put on to raise funds for the hospital.
Most of these Protestant gentlemen and their families had become newly rich only in one or two generations. Visitors from England often found them to be noisy, wild, brash, extravagant and hard-living – in particular, hard drinking. Lord Chesterfield, when he was Lord Lieutenant, was horrified by the ‘beastly vice’ of excessive drinking of French wine which destroyed ‘the constitutions, the faculties, and too often the fortunes of those of superior rank’. Heavy drinking naturally took place on festive occasions when endless toasts were given, the most popular being to "The glorious, pious and immortal memory of the good and great King William, who delivered us from Popery, slavery, arbitrary power, brass money, and wooden shoes." This caused Sir Jonah Barrington to remark: "Could his Majesty, King William, learn in the other world that he had been the cause of more broken heads and drunken men, since his departure, than all his predecessors, he must be the proudest ghost, and most conceited skeleton that ever entered the gardens of Elysium."
According to the Englishman who visited Dublin in 1764, John Bush, a ‘middling drinker’ would drink four bottles of claret – that is, red wine from Bordeaux – without showing any effects. No man was considered a serious drinker in Dublin who could not, he wrote, "take off his gallon coolly" – that is eight bottles of red wine drunk at one sitting. Dublin, indeed, was a city of excess and extremes. However, out of these excess came new freedoms for the Kingdom of Ireland. Freedoms which flowed from the constitutional settlement under William of Orange. The Bill of Rights 1688 gave us freedom of conscious, and the expansion of Irish literature and free press. In addition to laying down the guiding principles of democracy; 'more so than all the Irish revolutions put together.' W.B Yeats " battle of the Boyne overwhelmed a civilization based on religion and myth and replaced it with intelligible laws." 'Fine words from Yeats.'

Chris Thackaberry Irish historian and Dublin tour guide Historical Walking Tours of Dublin 

   

   

Tuesday, 2 April 2013

Nelson's Pillar & Dublin's lost Heritage


In 1966 on the eve of the 50th anniversary of the 1916 Rebellion. Dublin lost one of its many icons. Nelson's Pillar, blown-up in an act of cultural terrorism by the IRA. The remains of the iconic monument was then demolished by the Irish Army. In an effort in out-doing the IRA, in this act of cultural vandalism the State TV (RTE) showed the whole event live on national television. 

Long before London had Nelson's Column  Dublin city had its own version; Nelson's pillar. Designed in 1808 by the English architect William Wilkins (1778-1839), the pillar was topped by Thomas Kirk's statue of Admiral Nelson. Some forty meters high it was, at the time the tallest Doric column in the world. An early work by Wilkins, who was already making a name for himself as a leading Greek Revivalist, it was the greatest monument of Georgian Dublin, with the finest public viewpoint in the city. The IRA decided to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the 1916 rebellion with its destruction. Nelson's pillar represented the last of a long list of monuments destroyed by acts of terrorism. In addition to the State policy; in the removal of all monuments which  did not fit into the narrow cultural identity of the Irish State. Statue of William of Orange blown up in 1929, College Green, Gough Statue Phoenix Park blown up in 1953. Photo below showing the removal of the statue of Queen Victoria from Lenster Lawn. Dublin's British heritage lost, not just for the visitors to the city, but also for the citizens of the Irish Republic.


From the Gaelic revival of the 1890s to present day it is the aim of Irish Republicans and Nationalists to remove by force or through democratic influence all British heritage on the Island of Ireland. This policy can be witnessed first hand by the removal of the Union flag from Belfast City Hall in 2012.

Cultural war in Ireland.  




Although political violence in Ireland has abated in recent years. The main aim of Irish Republicans is to demonize and isolate, all protestant and Unionist heritage on the Island of Ireland. By doing so they are waging ethic and cultural war on Unionists communities. To assimilate or remove the British people from Ireland is their goal over future generations.

Dublin Loyal Tours was established in 2010 our aim and motivation is to make available to all visitors the rich Irish and British heritage of our Capital City...Dublin. We are the only historical walking tour officially affiliated to St Patrick's Cathedral. Our tour is a must for every visitor who holds an interest in the history of Ireland. We invite you to visit our website and trust you will enjoy it's content. www.dublinloyaltours.ie

Irish Times letter / Gibraltar Killings

Dear Sir,

Setting aside for a moment the obvious hurt still felt, the remainder of Niall Farrell's letter (Gibraltar Killings 28/3/13) does not stand up to scrutiny on a number of points.

The attack on Gibraltar by the IRA was to have been a high point of their bloody campaign on the European mainland. This campaign dominated their activities in the late 1980's. As was typical of their attacks, unarmed and off duty servicemen and their families were targeted. The death of a young baby, Nivruti Islania, shot in the head, and her RAF father has been forgotten. They were not the only victims of the IRA in Germany and Holland.

Mairead Farrell had been the leader of the female IRA in Armagh Prison and was regarded as a hardened republican. That is an indisputable fact and nothing before or after Gibraltar can change it. Your correspondent, Mark Hennessy (Death on the Rock 23/3/13), did not write a hackneyed piece as Mr.Farrell claims. It is a well researched and balanced piece. As with most republican arguments, however, those making them tend to have an extreme subjective view.

His use of the word ''dove'' alludes to the leaking of this possible bombing by elements within the IRA. There were no ''doves'' in that organisation. London had infiltrated them to a high level and any leaks were more to do with a unit rampaging around Europe and the effect on fundraising in the USA and elsewhere with the mounting deaths.

A cursory of the archive resources clearly shows how during Operation Flavius, MI6 had tracked this unit down through Spain and onto the Colony. Mairead Farrell was aided by two other hardened gunmen, Danny McCann and Sean Savage. The trio had  their target area and collected the car that was to become their bomb. The SAS then moved to arrest them only for McCann to move towards a bag he was carrying. Then and only then did the soldiers open fire. It is interesting to note that the subsequent court hearing in Strasbourg acknowledged ''possible hypotheses'' in IRA activities when ruling out compensation.

Those involved in bombing innocent civilians watching a ceremony have become in, republican mythology, the victims, whilst not a thought is given to those who may have been murdered without a thought by the IRA. I note no mention is made of the events surrounding the subsequent funerals when two Corporals, Wood and Howes, were beaten to death by a rabid, republican mob in full view of the world. Sadly this is something that relatives of these IRA members tend not to consider. 

yours sincerely,

Derek Reid

Mr Derek Reid works as a school teacher and tour guide with Dublin Loyal Tours if you are interested in Irish history then our Dublin Walking Tour is a must. You can book through our booking engine on our blog or directly through our website www.dublinloyaltours.ie